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Muhammad Isa by HIdayat ur Rahman copy right is reserved
Muhammad Isa was the son of the Hurmat Shah Charvelu of Torkho, the foster brother of Mehtar Sher Afzal. Born possibly in Uzhnu in around 1820 (Azmat Esa). He’s one of the greatest legends of all times. His family had a great rivalry with other tribes in Torkho valley named Khoshey and Pinshoway. Isa had seven brothers and two sisters as I have explored in different sources. One was married to Gurdiyal a great grandfather of Qimat Nazim Beg of Torkho other was married to Singul Khan a forefather of Muhammad Ismail of Reshun. Himayat Shah was of his brother later on killed on the orders of Mehtar Aman ul Mulk. His foster brother Sher Afzal Khan was appointed as a governor for Torkho valley and other surrounded areas in 1856. This gave him powers in the tribal politics of the region. Isa’s father taken the position of Charvelship and other members of his family remained in different positions. Mehtar granted him village Uzhnu as a Jigir (fief) and landed properties in Khoshwakhtan Dur Chomorkhon and Ayun etc. Earlier one of his relative married to Muhtaram Shah 1, is known as Makhtum Khonza.
He was no doubt one of the greatest military commanders, encountered many battles in Chitral and abroad. The war of Maimana is famous in Afghan history. In this battle, Mehtar Sher Afzal, Muhammad Isa and Daniyal Beg did a great job to win the decisive battle for Amir of Afghanistan.
Isa came to Chitral in October 1892 with his master Sher Afzal. Firstly, they reached Droshp with a contingent of five hundreds men and killed Murid Dastagir a governor of Khuzarah then proceeded towards Chitral and captured the royal fort for his foster brother. This sudden attack is one great tactical war in the history of Chitral. During the war, Muhammad Isa arrived towards the main gate and Daniyal Beg from the garden’s site. They remained in Chitral for two months, then on the arrival of Sardar Nizam UL Mulk Sher Afzal and his party fled to Afghanistan.
Sher Afzal and his party again invaded Chitral when war between British and Umara Khan Khan of Jandul was underway. They reached Khairabad near Kesu and conducted a Mehraka for a situation of Chitral, most of the participants asked Sher Afzal to follow British but Muhammad Isa rejected the idea than Sher Afzal endorsed the decision. During the war, Sher Afzal and followers were with Pathans. At once Muhammad caught two British officers Fowler and Edwards in polo ground of Reshun. The defeat of British in Biyar was one of the great strategies of Isa. He besieged Mastuj fort for eighteen days. After the war, Muhammad Isa escaped towards Tangir. He died there in 1905. He had a son named Muhammad Ayub Khan.
Muhammad Isa believed in religious and social agenda that had come down to him through his spiritual thinking. Seeking a return to an imagined free kingdom from the Britishers. Importantly, Muhammd Isa had initiated the campaign to free Chitral from the Begars and slavery.
سعید بیگ لال
سعید بیگ خوش لال حاکیم تورکہو کا سب سے چھوٹا فرزند تھا اور پردم خان اور محمد بیگ کا بھائی تھا۔ آپ کے جد آمجد میر خوش دور ریئسہ میں وسطی ایشیا سے چترال میں وارد ہوےَ۔ خوش کی اولاد مختلف اوقات میں علاقہ تورکہو اور موڑکہو میں حکومت کی۔ ان کی اولاد کی ان علاقوں میں عملداری کی ثبوت تورکہو کے را زوےَ اور عدلیہ کونسل کے دستاویزات میں ملتا ہیں۔ دور ریئسہ میں چترال کے مختلف علاقوں میں حاکیم یا چارویلو کے پوزیشن پر “٘٘میر” ہوا کرتا تھا۔ اس طرح دور ریئسہ میں “میر خوش،میر شغنی،میر محمد بیگ ، میر ابراہیم، میر حازبک، میر شوقی اور میر لاچین بیگ وغیرہ قابل ذکر تھیں۔(غفران ۱۹۲۱؛ ہولزورتھ ۲۰۰۷)
اس طرح وقت گزرتا گیا اور میر خوش کے اولاد “خوشے” کہلاےَ۔ یہ قبیلہ دور کٹوریہ میں بھی ممتاز اقوام میں ان شمار ہوتاتھا۔ یہ قبیلہ چترال کے طول و عرض میں پیھلی ہوئی ہے لیکن ان کی اکثریت تورکہو میں آباد ہے۔ دور کٹوریہ میں سعید بیگ کے آباواجداد میں ملک آژدار اور گوبونک قابل ذکر تھیں۔ شاہ خیراللہ کے دور حکومت میں بہرام بیگ کے اولاد نے ان کے برخلاف شہزادہگان شاہ افضل کا ساتھ دیا تھا۔ محترم شاہ کٹور ثانی کے ابتدائی حکومت میں ملک اژدار نے گلگت کے جنگ کے دوران انتہائی سردی میں دریا کو عبور کرکے دشمن پر حملہ آور ہوےَ اور ان پر فتح حاصل کیا۔ اس بہادری کا تذکراہ میرزا محمد سیر نے اپنے شہراہ افاق کتاب شاہنامہ میں کیا ہے۔ ملک اژدار کے ذاتی استعمال شدہ بندوق اپ بھی ان کے اولاد کے پاس موجود ہے اور اس میں ۱۲۲۵ھ درج ہے۔ ت ۱۸۹۵ء کے جنگ کے دوران اپکی خاندان نے مہتر شیر افضل کے خلاف انگیرزوں کا ساتھ دیا تھا۔ اعلی حضرات کے عہد میں سعید بیگ کے والد خوش لال مہتر کے حضور میں ممتاز اور معتبر تھے۔ آپ کئ سالوں تک چترال عدلیہ کونسل کے رکن رہے۔ پھر اپ کو حاکیم تورکہو کا عہدہ دیا گیااور اپنے انتقال تک اس عہدے پر فائض رہے۔ سعید بیگ لال تورکہو کے مرکزی مقام شاگرام میں پیدا ہوےَ۔ پھر والد کی طرف سے رائین اور کھوت میں جائیدادیں دی گئ۔ سعید بیگ بھی مہتران چترال کے دربار میں معتبر تھا اور عدلیہ کونسل کے رکن جنا گیا۔ آپ پولو کے بہترین کھلاڑی تھے اور تورکہو کے اس ٹیم کا حصہ تھے جو کئ سالوں تک ریاستی مقابلے میں اول اتے رہے۔ آپ کے بارے میں حکومت ہند کے شائع شدہ رپورٹ ٘میں لکھا ہے کہ
“ SIAD BEG Lal of Rain, Turikho. YOUDger brother of Purdum Khan (No. 92) and Mohd. Beg (No. 71). A good polo player. Owns much land in Rain.”
“A mysterious story (legend?) also goes about the birth of Roshan Ali Khan and Dadak, twin brothers and eldest of sons of Mutawali Khan.The story goes that Mutawali Khan’s wife, after a couple of years of marriage had, failed to bear him an heir. This was a matter of immense tension for Mutawali: to remarry or not to remarry? (As he loved his wife very much.) One day while he was making preparations to set on a journey towards Chitral fort, upon Mehtar’s call, a darvesh came to visit him at his home. The darvesh was carrying a cedar pole on his shoulder. He gave the cedar pole to Mutawali, with instructions to keep it safe till the day he will be blessed with twin sons. “You will be blessed with twin sons. Their names will be Roshan Ali Khan and Dadak” he said, “And when they are born, you should slice this cedar pole and use the pieces as candle for lighting.” With these instructions the mysterious darvesh left, never to be seen in Mutawali’s life again. Mutawali kept the pole safe, and set on the journey a couple of days later. Upon returning from the journey, weeks after, his wife informed him to his immense joy that she was expecting. Months passed by. After hours long immense labour pain, Mutawali’s wife gave birth to twin sons. It was midnight. Mutawali took hold of his axe and went to cut off a slice from the cedar pole. When he struck the axe onto the pole, the blade cut through a thin cedar covering, touched an iron bar-like thing inside, and got blunt. Mutawali sliced apart the pole with great care, and saw to his surprise that there were two gun-barrels of matchlock fittingly kept inside it. Each barrel had the name “Mutawali” engraved on it.
Roshan Ali Khan and Dadak were to be the names of the twin sons.
The matchlock belonging to Dadak came to be inherited by the eldest sons of his descendants. It has ultimately come down to my father Maula Nigah Nigah (Late). The engraved name “Mutawali” is still clearly visible on it along with Hijri year.
The one belonging to Roshan Ali Khan has come down to the family of Lali Sardar Nawaz Khan Advocate of Lonkuh, i think.” (Danish 2020: Nigah 2004)
دیر اور سوات کے موجودہ کوہستانات کو چترال میں قدیم دور سے بشقار کا نام دیا جاتا تھا مگرخود وہاں کے باشندوں میں یہ نام معروف نہیں تاہم اس نام کا ذکرسترہ ویں صدی کی ایک کتاب میں پہلی بار پڑھنے کو ملتا ہے جس میں چترال کے اس وقت کے شاہ کو “والئ چترار و بشقار” لکھا گیا ہے۔ لگتا ہے کہ کوہستان بھی باہر کے لوگوں کا رکھا ہوا فارسی نام ہے۔ بشقار اور چترال کو شیشی کوہ، ڑاسپور اور غزر کے درے قدیم زمانے میں ملاتے تھے مگر اب یہ متروک ہیں۔
یہاں کے اصل باشندے ہم نسل اور ہم زبان گاوری ہیں اور نورستان سے لیکر چیلاس تک کے دردی آرئیای باشندوں کا حصہ سمجھے جاتے ہیں۔ چترال اور دوسرے علاقوں کی طرح وہاں پر بھی لمغان، کونڑ، پیچ درہ، وائگل سے کلاشہ، نورستانی اور گجر نسل کے لوگ بھی آکر گاوری آبادی کا حصہ بن چکے ہیں۔ مطالعہ بتاتا ہےکہ وہاں کے قدیم غیر مسلم باشندوں کو کلاش یا باشگلی نہیں،’سپین کافر’ اور ‘تورکافر’ وغیرہ ناموں سے پکارا جاتا تھا۔
ان کوہستانات میں یوسفزئ پشتونوں اور آخون سلاک، آخون سباک، دیر نوابان کے جد آخون الیاس وغیرہ نے اسلام پھیلانےکا کام سترہ ویں صدی میں انجام دیا۔ ایک اور روایت کے مطابق اسلام پھیلانےکاکام اٹھارہ سو چار میں خان دیر غزن خان کے دور میں مکمل ہوسکا تھا۔ (اس دور میں غزن خان نہیں خان ظفر خان حکمران تھا ۔صحرائ) ۔
سوات کے معزول گبر سلطان اوئیس کا بیٹا قزان شاہ سوات کوہستان میں ایک جگہ مقیم ہوکر یوسف زئ علاقوں پر داڑے مارا کرتا تھا۔ ایک بار غالبا 1552-53میں وہ یوسفزئوں کے خلاف فوجی مدد کی غرض سے اس وقت کے کاشغری حکمرانوں کے پاس چترال آیا اس وقت چترال کا نام قشقار تھا۔۔ وہ یہاں سے امدادی فوج لیکرسوات بشقار گیا تھا چنانچہ قزانشاہ کے اس حملےکا ذکر تواریخ رحمت خانی کے حوالے سے ہولزوارتھ نے کیا ہے۔ ۔۔۔۔”کاشغر سوات اور پنجکوڑہ کے قریب شمال میں واقع تھا۔(قزان شاہ کی لائ ہوئ) فوج کے کاشغری ترک زبان بولنے والے سنی مسلمان تھے جبکہ انکی رعایا سب کے سب کافر تھے۔” قزان شاہ بہرحال اس جنگ میں شکست کھا گیا اور کچھ عرصہ بعد اسے یوسفزئوں نے گھات لگاکر قتل کرڈالا۔
بعد کےحالات سے اندازہ ہوتا ہے کہ یہ تعلق باجگزاری سے زیادہ نہیں تھا۔
گمان کیا جاتا ہے کہ باجگزاری کا یہ سلسلہ چترال میں کاشغری عملداری یا یہاں پر رئیسہ حکمرانی کے قیام کے بعد شروع ہواتھا مگر تفصیلات واضح نہیں۔ ان کوہستانات پر دیر اور سوات کے باقاعدہ قبضے تک
His ancestors have been migrated from Chilas and settled Laspur Chitral during the time of Rais and belonged to Shin(Bozhuky) caste (Godfrey 1897). According to Haji Zarqubad of Kanandur “that the ancestors of Muhammad Rafi had been enjoyed the position of Hakim since seven generations”(Zarqubad 2006: Kennion 1906: Khawar 2006).. Khanti was the name of of Muhammad Rafi’s father. Who was also Hakim of same region (Khawar 2006). Mehtar Mir Wali was fostered in the family of Muhammad Rafi. Mir Wali was a literate man, educated in Mardan, written History of Chitral and composed a dewan in Persian language. Upon the death of his father Muhammad Rafi became Hakim of Laspur in early period of Mehtar Aman ul Mulk (1856-1892). His administrative position started from Aun Shot to Langar. Hakim Muhammad Rafi had married a daughter of Maimun Beg of Torkho (as alluded by Willaim Lackhart in 1885).
Early life and Military trainings
Time when he was born there were only twelve literates peoples to read or speak Persian, living in whole district (Younghusband 1893) hence it only means of substance was depend on state services. As with most of what we know about Hakim Muhammad Rafi there are only a few hints about how he was trained, and they come mostly from from secondary sources. Given that, here are the best guesses. In Chitral there were arrangements for the military by the person’s parents themselves instead of State. Chitralis used muskets and guns in large number whereas Gilgitis and others had a slight disliking towards such modern arms and ammunition. Their favorite weapon was spear or ‘Niza’ and Swords (Kohnger).
He probably trained daily, and his army was also continually in training. He hunted as often as possible, which is a kind of training for warfare.
Political and Military Life
Muhammad Rafi was a Chitrali warrior and commander in the service of the Mehtar Gohar Aman, Mehtar Mir Wali and Mehtar Aman ul Mulk etc who played a leading role in the wars against Dogras in 1850-1866 and conquests of Gilgit and surrounding areas. A horseman of the Bozhuky tribe’s aristocratic Bapy clan, which ardently opposed Kator Mehtars played the instrumental role defeating the Britishers in the Battle of 1895 for a while. Following his father’s death, he was made a Hakim and commander by Mehtar Gohar Aman, who bestowed on him the title Kohngerdayk. He was a staunch supporter of Mehtar Mir Wali and Shahzada Sher Afzal. On one occasion Mehtar Mir Wali and Shahzada Sher Afzal made an attempt to kill Mehtar Aman ul Mulk via Muhammad Rafi but this plan has been unsuccessful and Sher Afzal was forced to exile in Afghanistan. He was a warrior as like to Muhammad Isa, Daniyal Beg and Delawar Shah etc. Rafi was part of every war of Gohar Aman in different campaign against Dogras in Gilgit hence famous scholar Abdul Hamid Khawar given him into the list of warriors of Gohar Aman. He did well the Mehtar Aman ul Mulk’s invasion of Gilgit in 1863/64 (Khawar 2009).
During the reign of Mehtar Mir Wali, he was appointed chief advisor and participated all the wars and political matters. Muhammad Rafi, one of the three ruffians who actually seized and murdered poor Hayward in 1870. In 1876, his foster brother and master Mehtar Mir Wali was killed, this was a crucial time but Mehtar Aman ul Mulk had arranged a marriage of Muhammad Rafi, one of his foster relatives in Torkho valley, hence his relations with the Mehtar of Lower Chitral has been strengthened. During Aman ul Mulk reign he remained his position in Laspur valley. Upon the death of Mehtar Aman ul Mulk, Afzal ul Mulk ascended the throne and Muhammad Rafi was forcefully exiled by the orders of Afzal ul Mulk. In 1892, Shahzada Sher Afzal ascended the throne for a while, he restored the position of Muhammad Rafi again. In 1893, British Agent Sir Goerge Robertson visited Chitral and mentioned Muhammad Rafi in his report in following words
“We passed the Shandur without the least difficulty. There was very little snow comparatively speaking, and the rear guard reached Sarlaspur before 4 o’clock. Our reception has been most satisfactory. Bahadur before 4 o’clock. Our reception has been must satisfactory. Bahadur Khan and that scoundrel Muhammad Rafi met me on the top of the pass. The Sikhs managed the journey very fairly well.
The pleasing news has just been brought that the doubtful Laspur people, headed by their shifty Hakim Muhammad Rafi, have all sworn allegiance to Nizam-ul-Mulk on the Koran. This ceremony was gone through in the presence of Mehtar Joo Bahadar Khan and Wazir Inayat Khan, without any member of the Mission being in any way associated with it.
Muhammad Wali presence at Gilgit is undoubtedly causing us some trouble. That reseals Muhammad Rafi lately sent a secret messenger to him. The man was stopped on the road and turned back wounded. It is said that Muhammad Wali’s adherents amongst the Ghizr men have sent him a message to the effect that, if he is given Yasin, well and good but if this is not done, they advise his running away by the Kargah to Yaghistan where they propose to join him.
During the turbulent period of 1895, B.E.M Gurdon says “On the third day after leaving Gupis I crossed the Shandur pass (12,400 feet), and I can remember to this day how bitterly cold was the wind. On the Chitral side of the pass I was met by Mohamed Rafi, the Hakim or Governor of the Laspur district; he struck me as not being too friendly, and I was not surprised to learn later from our news-writer in Chitral that he was not likely to be a trustworthy supporter of Nizam-ul-Mulk, as he was the foster-father of Mohamed Wali, son of the late Mir Wali, Hayward’s murderer.1 Mohamed Rafi was indeed himself present at the murder and doubtless felt none too comfortable when meeting British officers.
The estimate I then formed of Mohamed Rafi’s attitude was fully borne out in the subsequent disturbances in which he took a prominent part against us. He had much influence with the Laspuris and a few weeks later Mr. Robertson offered to confirm him in the position of Hakim of Laspur with an allowance from the Kashmir State. Notwithstanding this he could not resist the temptation of joining Sher Afzal, and he persuaded his foster-son, Mohamed Wali, to do likewise. The foster-tie is very strong in the Hindukush region, and Mohamed Rafi hoped that his foster-son might become ruler of Yasin, Ghizr, and Laspur, and possibly of Mastuj also; he himself, in accordance with custom, would then become, next to the ruler, the most important person in that part of the country.(Gurdon 1933)
In a letter Gurdon says
“I wrote again that evening to Mr. Robertson describing the meeting with Amir-ul-Mulk. I expressed the opinion that Amir-ul-Mulk was a mere puppet in the hands of Sher Afzal’s party, who would not hesitate to kill him should it be necessary in Sher Afzal’s interests to do so. I also stated that Sher Afzal’s adherents had sent urgent messengers to Kabul to beg him to come at once to Chitral. I added that although the men who had most influence at the moment were distinctly adverse to us, it was of some comfort to me to be able to report that so far no men of importance from the Mastuj district with the exception of Mohamed Rafi, the Hakim of Laspur, had come in to join Amir-ul-Mulk. I also wrote that I was doing my best to collect supplies and that I hoped to be able to procure about eighty maunds of wheat.”
Rafi subsequently moved against the largely British forces and the contingent of Lapur in Kuh valley of Mastuj, stationed in Darband e Nasrgol. His army was defeated by colonel Kelly’s army in mid April 1895. Upon the arrival of British Relief force he was removed the position of Hakim and this position given to his rival Maherban Shah of Laspur. Later on he spent most of his life in Daril and Tangir with Muhammad Wali and Raja Pukhtun Wali. His son Sikandar Khan was a famous polo player and Subedar in Bodyquard . His descendants are live in Parwak village of Mastuj.
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